Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Page: 91-95
Common Neurotransmitters: Criteria for Neurotransmitters, Key Locations, Classifications and Functions
Getinet Ayano, Research and Training Department, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Received: Jun. 4, 2016;       Accepted: Jun. 20, 2016;       Published: Mar. 10, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20160406.12      View  5483      Downloads  239
Abstract
The criteria, key locations, classifications and functions of common neuro transmitters is reviewed and discussed. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout our brain and body. They relay signals between neurons. To be neurotransmitter the molecule must be present in the brain and distributed unevenly and enzymes that help to create the neurotransmitter must be present in the brain. Common inhibitory neurotransmitters such as serotonin, Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and dopamine calm the brain and help create balance where as excitatory neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, glutamate, epinephrine, and dopamine stimulate the brain. From inhibitory neurotransmitters dopamine is located in Amygdala, Cingulate cortex, Hippocampus, Nucleus accumbens. Olfactory bulb, Prefrontal cortex, substancia nigra and hypothalamus and it is mainly involved in movements, emotions, sexual arousal and cognitive functions where as Serotonin is located in Amygdala, Cingulate cortex, Hippocampus, thalamus, septum, neocortex, ventral tagemental area and hypothalamus and it is mainly involved in emotions, sleep, body temperature regulation and pain suppressions. From excitatory neurotransmitters norepinephrine is found in Amygdala, Hippocampus, brainstem, Spinal cord, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Hypothalamus, Tectum, Thalamus, Ventral tegmental area, and Olfactory bulb and mainly involved in anxiety, mood, sympathetic arousal, cognitive control, working memory, hunger and circadian rhythm. Acetylcholine is found nucleus basalis of meynert, medial septal nucleus, diagonal band hippocampus, Cerebral cortex, limbic cortex, sensory cortex, thalamus and Ventral tegmental area and mainly involved in emotions, wakefulness and attention (arousal), short term memory, learning and motor functions.
Keywords
Neurotransmitters, Inhibitory Neurotransmitters, Excitatory Neurotransmitters, Monoamines
To cite this article
Getinet Ayano, Common Neurotransmitters: Criteria for Neurotransmitters, Key Locations, Classifications and Functions, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 91-95. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20160406.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Stahl Stahl, S M. Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. 3rd ed. New York: Cambrigde University Press; 2008
[2]
Sadock, B J., V A. Sadock, and P Ruiz. Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
[3]
Haines DE. Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2006.
[4]
Lodish, H.; Berk, A.; Zipursky, S. L. (2000). Molecular Cell Biology: Section 21.4Neurotransmitters, Synapses, and Impulse Transmission (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
[5]
Cherry, Kendra. "What is a Neurotransmitter?". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
[6]
University, S. Marc Breedlove, Michigan State University, Neil V. Watson, Simon Fraser (2013). Biological psychology: an introduction to behavioral, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience (Seventh ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
[7]
Whishaw, Bryan Kolb, Ian Q. (2014). An introduction to brain and behavior (4th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. pp. 150–151
[8]
Robert Sapolsky (2005). "Biology and Human Behavior: The Neurological Origins of Individuality, 2nd edition". The Teaching Company. see pages 13 & 14 of Guide Book
[9]
Snyder SH, Innis RB (1979). "Peptide neurotransmitters". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48: 755–82. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi.48.070179.003543. PMID 38738.
[10]
Kodirov, Sodikdjon A., Shuichi Takizawa, Jamie Joseph, Eric R. Kandel, Gleb P. Shumyatsky, and Vadim Y. Bolshakov. Synaptically released zinc gates long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways. PNAS, 10 October 2006. 103 (41): 15218-23. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0607131103
[11]
"International Symposium on Nitric Oxide - Dr. John Andrews - MaRS". MaRS.
[12]
University of Bristol. "Introduction to Serotonin". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
[13]
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York:
[14]
Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 474 for noradrenaline system, page 476 for dopamine system, page 480 for serotonin system and page 483 for cholinergic system.
[15]
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York:
[16]
Nestler, Eric J. "BRAIN REWARD PATHWAYS". Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Nestler Lab. Retrieved 16 August 2014. The dorsal raphe is the primary site of serotonergic neurons in the brain, which, like noradrenergic neurons, pervasively modulate brain function to regulate the state of activation and mood of the organism.
[17]
Orexin receptor antagonists a new class of sleeping pill, National Sleep Foundation
[18]
Schacter, Gilbert and Weger. Psychology. United States of America. 2009. Print
[19]
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 155.
[20]
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York
Browse journals by subject