Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Page: 48-51
Comparison of Degrees of Social Distance Towards the Mentally Ill Between Relatives of Psychiatric Patients, Health Workers and the General Public
Chukwujekwu Donald Chidozie, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Chukwujekwu Judith Chioma, Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Olose Emmanuel Omamurhomu, Department of Psychiatry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Received: Apr. 30, 2016;       Accepted: May 9, 2016;       Published: May 26, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20160403.13      View  3638      Downloads  148
The study compared the degree of social distance towards the mentally ill between the public, health workers and relatives of the mentally ill at Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State of Nigeria. It took place within 10 months. Two hundred and sixty nine consenting subjects were enlisted in the study. However only 254 completed it comprising 110 relatives of the mentally ill, 47 health workers and 97 non-relatives (public). The modified Bogardus Social Distance Scale (MBSDS) and a self designed questionnaire containing socio-demographic and psychiatric illness variables were administered to each subject. The difference in mean MBSDS scores of the public and relatives of the mentally ill is statistically significant, while the difference in mean MBSDS scores of the public and health workers is not statistically significant. The greatest proportion of respondents (37%) attributed the cause of mentally illness to demonic possession. Stigma towards the mentally ill is not only an important global health concern, but it is a burning human right issue.
Stigma, Mentally-Ill, Social Distance, Health, Scores
To cite this article
Chukwujekwu Donald Chidozie, Chukwujekwu Judith Chioma, Olose Emmanuel Omamurhomu, Comparison of Degrees of Social Distance Towards the Mentally Ill Between Relatives of Psychiatric Patients, Health Workers and the General Public, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 48-51. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20160403.13
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Goffman E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of spoiled identity, 1963. Prentice-Hall ISBN 0-671-62244-7.
Corrigan P, Penn DL. Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatry stigma. Am Psychologist 1999; 54: 765-776.
Bruce GL, Lawrence, HY, Jo CP, Pamela C. Measuring Mental Illness Stigma. Schiz Bulletin 2004; 30 (3): 511-541.
Corrigan PW, Watson AC. Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World psychiatry 2002; 1: 16-20.
Taylor SM, Dear MJ. (1980). Scaling Community Attitudes towards the mentally ill. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1980; 7: 225-240.
Brockington IF, Hall P, Levinge J, Murphy C. The Community’s tolerance to the mentally ill. Br J Psychiatry 1993; 162: 93-99.
Huxely P. Location and Stigma; a survey of Community attitudes towards mental illness. Journ Mental Health 1991; 2: 73-80.
John AF, Korten AE, Jacomb PA, Christensen H, Henderson S. (1999). Attitudes towards people with mental illness; a survey of Australian and Newzealand J Psychiatry 1999; 33: 77-83.
Crips AH, Michael GG., Susannah R, Howard IM, Olwen JR. Stigmatization of people with mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 177 (1): 4-7.
Link BG, Cullen FT, Frank J, and Wozhiack F. The Social Rejection of former mental patients; Understanding why labels matter. Am J Sociology 1987; 92: 1461-1500.
Penn DL, Corrigan PW, Martin J, Ihnen G, Racenstein JM, Nelson D, Cassisi J, Hope D A. Social cognition and social skills in schizophrenia. The rate of self monitoring. Jour Nerv Ment Diseases 1999; 187: 188-190.
Penn D. L, Guynan K, Daily T, Spalding WD, Garbin C P, Sullivas M. (1994). Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: what sort of information is best? Schizophrenia Bulletin 1994; 20 (3): 567-578.
Schultze B, Angermeyer M C. Subjective experiences of stigma. A focus group study of schizophrenic patient, their relatives and mental health professionals. Social Sciences and Medicine 2003; 56: 299-312.
Carne B. “A Consumer Perspective”. Can J Com Mental Health. Special supplement 1998; (3): 21-28.
Link B G, Phelan J C, Bresnaham M. Public conceptions of mental illness; Labels, Causes, Dangerousness and Social Distance. American Journal of Public Health 1999; 89: 1328-1333.
Angermeyer M C, Matschinger, H. Casual beliefs and attitudes to people with schizophrenia; Trend analysis based on data from two population surveys in Germany. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 331-334.
Fabrega H. Psychiatry stigma in non-Western Societies. Compr Psychiatry 1991; 32: 534-551.
Awaritefe A, Ebie JC. Complementary attitudes to mental illness in Nigeria. African J Psychiatry 1975; 1: 37-43.
Binite AO. Attitudes of educational Nigerians to psychiatric illness. Acta Psych Scandanivica 1970; 46; 391-398.
Gureje O, Lasebikan V, Ephraim-Oluwanuga O, Benjamin O, Lola K. Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 436-441.
Abiodun OA, Makanjuola ROA. Social distance towards people with mental illness amongst Nigerian University Students. Soc Psych - Psych Epidemiol 2005; 40: 865-868.
Odejide AO, Olatawura MO. A survey of community attitudes to the concept and treatment of mental illness in Ibadan. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 1979; 9: 343-347.
Corrigan PW. How stigma interfers with mental health care. Am Psychol 2004; 59 (7): 614-625.
Ayorinde O, Gureje OA, Lawal R. (2004). Psychiatric research in Nigeria: Bridging tradition and modernization. British Journal of Psychiatry 2004; 184: 336-538.
Corrigan PW, Edwards AB, Green A, Diwan SL, Penn D L. Prejudice, social distance and familiarity with mental illness. Schizophr Bull 2001; 27 (2): 219-225.
Pingani L, Catellani S, Del-Vecchio V, Samogna G, Ellefson S E, Rigatilli M, Florrilo A, Evans- Lacko S, Corrigan PW. Stigma in the context of schools: analysis of the phenomenon of stigma in a population of University students. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 29.
Sheikh TL, Adekeye O, Olisah VO, Mohammed A. Stigmatisation of mental illness among employees of a Northern Nigeria University. Niger Med J 2015; 56 (4): 244-248.
Ellison N, Mason O, Scior K. Renaming Schizophrenia to reduce stigma; comparison with the case of bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2015; 206 (4): 341-342.
Ellison N, Mason O, Scior K. Public beliefs about and attitudes towards bipolar disorder; testing theory based models of stigma. J Affect Disord 2015; 175: 116-123.
Lasalvia A, Penta E, Sartorius N, Henderson S. Should the label “schizophrenia” be abandoned ? Schizophr Res 2015; 162 (1-3): 276-284.
Imholf R. Zeroing in on the schizophrenia label on stigmatizing attitudes; a large scale study. Schizophr Bull 2016; 42 (2): 456-463.
Browse journals by subject