Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Page: 15-22
The Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy: A Meta-Analytic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke Cognitive Language Rehabilitation Literature
Zachary Miklos, Department of Psychology, Towson University, Towson, U. S. A.
Matthew Mychailyszyn, Department of Psychology, Towson University, Towson, U. S. A.
Rick Parente, Department of Psychology, Towson University, Towson, U. S. A.
Received: Sep. 29, 2014;       Accepted: Oct. 18, 2014;       Published: Feb. 16, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20150302.11      View  3355      Downloads  280
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are leading contributors to health impairments and decrements to quality of life. This meta-analysis evaluated 10 studies of cognitive language rehabilitation and recovery among patients who endured a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke. Results indicated a significant effect size in the control conditions (r = .27 p < .05) in which patients received no cognitive language rehabilitation therapy, suggesting that considerable language improvement occurs spontaneously over time. A significant effect size was also present in the intervention conditions (r = .4, p < .05) in which patients received cognitive language rehabilitation therapy. There was a significant difference between these two effects sizes, which suggests that cognitive language rehabilitation therapies are effective therapeutic interventions above and beyond what can be contributed solely to the passage of time.
Brain Injury, Stroke, Language, Rehabilitation, Meta-Analysis
To cite this article
Zachary Miklos, Matthew Mychailyszyn, Rick Parente, The Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy: A Meta-Analytic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke Cognitive Language Rehabilitation Literature, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 15-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20150302.11
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (September 19, 2012). Injury and Prevention Control: Traumatic Brain Injury. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/statistics.html
Allen, B. J., & Gfeller, J. D. (2011). The immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing battery and traditional neuropsychological measures: A construct and concurrent validity study. Brain Injury, 25(2), 179-191.
Wu, X., Mao, H., Liu J., Xu, J., Cao, J., Gu, X., & Cui, G. (2013). Dyanmic changes of SGK expression and its role in neuron apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 6(7), 1282-1293.
McNally, K. A., Bangert, B., Dietrick, A., Nuss, K., Rusin, J., Wright, M., Taylor, H. G., & Yeates, K. O. (2013). Injury versus noninjury factors as predictors of postconcussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 27(1), 1-12.
Brain Injury Association of America [BIAA] (2013). Living With Brain Injury: Treatment. Retrieved from: http://biausa.fyrian.com/brain-injury-treatment.htm#treatment continuum
D’Alessandro, G., Gallo, F., Vitaliano, A., Del Col, P., Gorraz, F., De Cristofaro, R., & Boaretto, G. (2010). Prevalence of stroke and stroke-related disability in Valle d’Aosta, Italy. Neurological Sciences, 31, 137-141.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (September 19, 2012). Division for Heart Disease and Prevention:Stroke-from http://www.cdc.gov/stroke/facts.htm
Persson, H. C., Parziali, M., Danielsson, A., & Sunnerhagen, K. S. (2012). Outcome and upper extremity function within 72 hours after first occasion of stroke in an unselected population at a stroke unit. A part of the SALGOT study. BMC Neurology, 12(162), 1-6.
Bakheit, A. M. O., Shaw, S., Carrington, S., & Griffiths, S. (2007). The rate and extent of improvement with therapy from the different types of aphasia in the first year after stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(10), 941-949.
Beveridge, M. E. L., & Bak, T. H. (2011). The languages of aphasia research: Bias and diversity. Aphasiology, 25(12), 1451-1468.
Glymour, M. M., Yen, J. J., Kosheleva, A., Moon, J. R., Capistrant, B. D., & Patton, K. K. (2012). Elevated depressive symptoms and incident storke in Hispanic, African-American, and White older Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 211-220.
Siniscalchi, A., Gallelli, L., Labate, A., Malferrari, G., Palleria, C., Sarro, G.D. (2012). Post-stroke movement disorders: Clinical manifestations and pharmacological management. Current Neuropharmacology, Sep; 10(3): 254-262.
Lerdal, A., Bakken, L. N., Rasmussen, E. F., Beiermann, C., Ryen, S., Pynten, S., Drefvelin, Å. S., Dahl, A. M., Rognstad, G., Finset, A., Lee, K. A., & Kim, H. S. (2011). Physical impairment, depressive symptoms and pre-stroke fatigue are related to fatigue in the acute phase after stroke. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33(4), 334-342.
*Särkämö, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Soinila, S., Mikkonen, M., Autti, T., Silvennoinen, H. M., Erkkilä, Laine, M., Peretz, I., & Hietanen, M. (2008). Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. Brain, 131, 866-876.
Conklyn, D., Novak, E., Boissy, A., Bethoux, F., & Chemali, K. (2012). The effects of modified melodic intonation therapy on nonfluent aphasia: A pilot study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 1463-1471.
Kirmess, M., & Maher, L. M. (2010). Constraint induced language therapy in early aphasia rehabilitation. Aphasiology, 24(6-8), 725-736.
Turkstra, L. S. (2008). Conversation-based assessment of social cognition in adults with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 22(5), 397-409.
Fecteau, S., Agosta, S., Oberman, L., & Pascual-Leone, A. P. (2011). Brain stimulation over Broca’s area differentially modulates naming skills in neurotypical adults and individuals with Asperger’s syndrome. European Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 158-164.
Fridriksson, J., Hubbard, H. I., Hudspeth, S. G., Holland, A. L., Bonilha, L., Fromm, D., & Rorden, C. (2012). Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech. Brain, 135, 3815-3829.
Kemmerer, D. (2012). The cross-linguistic prevalence of SOV and SVO word orders reflects the sequential and hierarchical representation of action in Broca’s area. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6(1), 50-66.
Konrad, A., Vucurevic, G., Musso, F., & Winterer, G. (2012). VBM-DTI correlates of verbal intelligence: A potential link to Broca’s area. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(4), 888-895.
Josephs, K. A., Duffy, J. R., Strand, E. A., Machulda, M. M., Senjem, M. L., Master, A. V., Lowe, V. J., Jack, C. R., & Whitwell, J. L. (2012). Characterizing a neurodegenerative syndrome: Primary progressive apraxia of speech. Brain, 135, 1522-1236.
Poeppel, D., Emmorey, K., Hickok, G., & Pylkkänen, L. (2012). Towards a new neurobiology of language. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(41), 14125-14131.
Meguro, K. (2012). Behavioral neurology in language and aphasia: From basic studies to clinical applications. The Indonesian Journal of Internal Medicine, 327-334.
Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D. M., Malec, L. E., Berguist, T. F., et al. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 1596-1615.
Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., et al. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehbailitation, 86, 1681-1692.
Robey, R. U. (1998). A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes in the treatment of aphasia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41(1), 172-187.
Rohling, M. L., Faust, M. E., Beverly, B., Demakis, G. (2009). Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: A meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.’s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology, 23(1), 20-39.
Wisenburn, B., & Mahoney, K. (2009). A meta-analysis of word-finding treatments for aphasia. Aphasiology, 23(11), 1338-1352.
Elliot, M., & Parente, R. (in press). Efficacy of Memory Rehabilitation Therapy: A Meta-Analysis of TBI and Stroke Cognitive Rehabilitation Literature. Brain Injury. Early On-Line-DOI:10.3109/02699052.2014.934921, http://informahealthcare.com/bij, ISSN: 0269-9052 (print), 1362-301X (electronic)
Bernard, R. (2010). The Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention Deficits in Sustained Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke: A Meta-Analytic Review (Unpublished master’s thesis). Towson University, Maryland.
Wilkinson, L., & the APA Task Force on Statistical Inference. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist, 54, 594-604.
Durlak, J. A. (2009). How to select, calculate, and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(9), 917-928.
Rosenthal, R. (2002, August). Correlations, contrasts, and conceptual clarity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association , Chicago, IL.
Quality Standards Subcommittee. American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: the management of concussion in sports. Neurology, 48: 581-585, 1997.
Saur, D., & Hartwigsen, G. (2012). Neurobiology of language recovery after stroke: Lessons from neuroimaging studies. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(1, Suppl 1), S15-S25.
Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (1986). Effectiveness of an attention-training program. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9(2), 117-130.
*Bakheit, A. M. O., Carrington, S., Griffiths, S., & Searle, K. (2005). High scores on the Western Aphasia Battery correlate with good functional communication skills (as measured with the Communicative Effectiveness Index) in aphasic stroke patients. Disability and Rehabilitation, 27(6), 287-291.
*Bakheit, A. M. O., Shaw, S., Barrett, L., Wood, J., Carrington, S., Griffiths, S., Searle, K., & Koutsi, F. (2007). A prospective, randomized, parallel group, controlled study of the effect of intensity of speech and language therapy on early recovery from poststroke aphasia. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21, 885-894.
*Braden, C., Hawley, L., Newman, J., Morey, C., Gerber, D., & Harrison-Felix, C. (2010).
*Chou, P., Chu, H., & Lin, J. G. (2009). Effects of electroacupuncture treatment on impaired cognition and quality of life in Taiwanese stroke patients. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(10), 1067-1073.
*Kersel, D. A., Marsh, N. V., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (2001). Neuropsychological functioning during the year following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 15(4), 283-296.
*King, K. A., Hough, M. S., Walker, M. M., Rastatter, M., & Holbert, D. (2006). Mild traumatic brain injury: Effects on naming in word retrieval and discourse. Brain Injury, 20(7), 725-732.
*Meinzer, M., Djundja, D., Barthel, G., Elbert, T., & Rockstroh, B. (2005). Long-term stability of improved language functions in chronic aphasia after constraint-induced aphasia therapy. Stroke, 36, 1462-1466.
*Mumby, K. & Whitworth, A. (2012). Evaluating the effectiveness of intervention in long-term aphasia post-stroke: The experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside). Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 47(4), 398-412.
*Snow, P., Douglas, J., & Ponsford, J. (1998). Conversational discourse abilities following severe traumatic brain injury: A follow-up study. Brain Injury, 12(11), 911-935.
Browse journals by subject