Volume 1, Issue 3, November 2013, Page: 38-46
The Role of Thiamine in Schizophrenia
Khanh vinh quốc Lương, Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation, Westminster, California, U.S.A
Lan Thi Hoàng Nguyễn, Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation, Westminster, California, U.S.A
Received: Sep. 3, 2013;       Published: Nov. 30, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20130103.11      View  4120      Downloads  343
Abstract
Objective: Review the relationship between thiamine and schizophrenia. Methods: Information was obtained from MEDLINE. Results: Nutritional status has been related to the development of schizophrenia. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link thiamine to schizophrenia, including the renin angiotensin system, heme oxygenase-1, advanced glycation end products, alpha-antitrypsin, coenzyme Q10, glycogen synthetase kinase-3, and the transcription factor p53. Thiamine has also been implicated in schizophrenia via its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, reactive oxidative stress, and nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions: These data suggest a role of thiamine in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, additional investigation of thiamine in schizophrenic patients is required.
Keywords
Thiamine, Schizophrenia, Transketolase, Vitamin B1
To cite this article
Khanh vinh quốc Lương, Lan Thi Hoàng Nguyễn, The Role of Thiamine in Schizophrenia, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2013, pp. 38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20130103.11
Reference
[1]
Venables PH, Raine A. Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: the mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning.Am J Psychiatry. 2012; 169:822-30.
[2]
Susser E, Neugebauer R, Hoek HW, Brown AS, Lin S, et al. Schizophrenia after prenatal famine. Further evidence.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996; 53:25-31.
[3]
Hoek HW, Brown AS, Susser E. The Dutch famine and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol. 1998; 33:373-9.
[4]
St Clair D, Xu M, Wang P, Yu Y, Fang Y, et al. Rates of adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959-1961.JAMA. 2005;294:557-62.
[5]
Bell JM, Stewart CN. Effects of fetal and early postnatal thiamin deficiency on avoidance learning in rats. J Nutr. 1979; 109:1577-83.
[6]
Resende LS, Ribeiro AM, Werner D, Hall JM, Savage LM. Thiamine deficiency degrades the link between spatial behavior and hippocampal synapsin I and phosphorylated synapsin I protein levels. Behav Brain Res. 2012;232:421-5.
[7]
Gupta RK, Yadav SK, Saraswat VA, Rangan M, Srivastava A, et al. Thiamine deficiency related microstructural brain changes in acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure of non-alcoholic etiology. ClinNutr. 2012; 31:422-8.
[8]
Briess D, Cotter D, Doshi R, Everall I. Mamillary body abnormalities in schizophrenia.Lancet. 1998; 352:789-90.
[9]
Bernstein HG, Krause S, Krell D, Dobrowolny H, Wolter M, et al. Strongly reduced number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive projection neurons in the mammillary bodies in schizophrenia: further evidence for limbic neuropathology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007; 1096:120-7.
[10]
Bettendorff L, Weekers L, Wins P, Schoffeniels E. Injection of sulbutiamine induces an increase in thiamine triphosphate in rat tissues. BiochemPharmacol. 1990; 40:2557-60.
[11]
Trovero F, Gobbi M, Weil-Fuggaza J, Besson MJ, Brochet D, Pirot S. Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain. NeurosciLett. 2000;292:49-53.
[12]
Harrison RA, Vu T, Hunter AJ. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a patient with schizophrenia.J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:C8-C11.
[13]
Salawu F, Kwajaffa S. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a Nigerian with schizophrenia.Ann Afr Med. 2007;6:200-2.
[14]
Tsai HY, LiehYeh T, Sheei-Meei W, Chen PS, Yang YK. Starvation-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy in schizophrenia.Psychiatry ClinNeurosci. 2004;58:338-9
[15]
Danielson C, Joyce SM. Beriberi heart disease in a schizophrenic with an unusual diet.J Emerg Med. 1990; 8:705-7.
[16]
Gontzea IG, Gorcea V, Popescu F. Biochemichal Assessment of Thiamin Status in Patients with Neurosis. NutrMetab. 1975; 19:153-7.
[17]
Casanova M F, Diamond B I, Pathiraja A P, Nguyen T H. Erythrocyte transketolase abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 1992;18(Iss.1-2):571
[18]
Carney MW, Williams DG, Sheffield BF. Thiamine and pyridoxine lack newly-admitted psychiatric patients.Br J Psychiatry. 1979; 135:249-54.
[19]
Benton D, Fordy F, Haller J. The Impact of Long-Term Vitamin Supplementation on Cognitive Functioning. Psychopharm. 1995; 117:298-305.
[20]
Brozek J, Caster WO. Psychologic Effects of Thiamine Restriction and Deprivation in Normal Young Men. Am J ClinNutr. 1957; 5:109-20.
[21]
Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ. Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency. Am J ClinNutr. 1980; 33:205-11.
[22]
Hills JI, Golub MS, Bettendorff L, Keen CL. The effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide on behavior of juvenile DBA/2J mice. NeurotoxicolTeratol. 2012; 34:242-52.
[23]
Sacks W, Esser AH, Feitel B, Abbott K. Acetazolamide and thiamine: an ancillary therapy for chronic mental illness.Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28:279-88.
[24]
Sasaki T, Yukizane T, Atsuta H, Ishikawa H, Yoshiike T, et al. [A case of thiamine deficiency with psychotic symptoms--blood concentration of thiamine and response to therapy]. SeishinShinkeigakuZasshi. 2010; 112:97-110. [Article in Japanese]
[25]
Changaris DG, Keil LC, Severs WB. Angiotensin II immunohistochemistry of the rat brain. Neuroendocrinol. 1978; 25:257-74.
[26]
Healy DP, Printz MP. Distribution of immunoreactive angiotensin II, angiotensin I, angiotensinogen, and renin in the central nervous system of intact and nephrectomized rats. Hypertension. 1984;6(suppl 1):130-6.
[27]
Ganten D, Hermann K, Bayer D, Unger T, Lang RR. Angiotensin synthesis in the brain and increased turnover in hypertensive rats. Science. 1983; 221:869-71.
[28]
Dzau VJ, Ingelfinger J, Pratt RE, Ellison KE. Identification of renin and angiotensinogen messenger RNA sequences in rat brain. Hypertension. 1986; 8:544-8.
[29]
Braff DL, Geyer MA. Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia. Human and animal model studies.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990; 47:181-8.
[30]
Van den Buuse M, Zheng TW, Walker LL, Denton DA. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) interacts with dopaminergic mechanisms in the brain to modulate prepulse inhibition in mice.NeurosciLett. 2005; 380:6-11.
[31]
Wahlbeck K, Ahokas A, Nikkilä H, Miettinen K, Rimón R. Cerebrospinal fluid angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) correlates with length of illness in schizophrenia.Schizophr Res. 2000; 41:335-40.
[32]
Wahlbeck K, Rimón R, Fyhrquist F. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme (kininase II) in the cerebrospinal fluid of neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients.Schizophr Res. 1993; 9:77-82.
[33]
Robertson D, Michelakis AM. The effect of chlorpromazine on plasma renin activity and aldosterone in man.J ClinEndocrinolMetab. 1975; 41:1166-8.
[34]
Golimbet VE, Andreev TV, Abramova LI, Kaleda VG. Insertion-deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme gene in patients with endogenic psychoses].NeurosciLett. 2005; 380:6-11. [Article in Russian]
[35]
Ouyang WC, Wang YC, Hong CJ, Cheng CY, Tsai SJ. Association study of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism with schizophrenia and polydipsia.Neuropsychobiology. 2001; 44:31-5.
[36]
Hastings MM, Van JL. Sodium deprivation during thiamin deficiency in rats: hormonal, histological, and behavioral responses. J Nutr. 1981; 111:1955-63.
[37]
Tanaka T, Sohmiya K, Kono T, Terasaki F, Horie R, et al. Thiamine attenuates the hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in CD36-defective SHR: uncoupling of glucose oxidation from cellular entry accompanied with enhanced protein O-GlcNAcylation in CD36 deficiency.Mol Cell Biochem. 2007; 299:23-35.
[38]
Hascalovici JR, Vaya J, Khatib S, Holcroft CA, Zukor H, et al. Brain sterol dys-regulation in sporadic AD and MCI: Relationship to heme oxygenase-1. J Neurochem. 2009; 110:1241-53.
[39]
Baranano DE, Snyder SH. Neural roles for hemeoxygenase: contrasts to nitric oxide synthase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2001; 98:10996–1002.
[40]
Song W, Zukor H, Lin SH, Hascalovici J, Liberman A, et al. Schizophrenia-Like Features in Transgenic Mice Over expressing Human HO-1 in the Astrocytic Compartment. J Neurosci. 2012; 32:10841-53.
[41]
Calingasan NY, Gibson GE. Dietary restriction attenuates the neuronal loss, induction of heme oxygenase-1 and blood-brain barrier breakdown induced by impaired oxidative merabolism. Brain Res. 2000; 885:62-9.
[42]
Beauchesne É, Desjardins P, Hazell AS, Butterworth RF. eNOS gene deletion restores blood-brain barrier integrity and attenuates neurodegeneration in the thiamine-deficient mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2009; 111:452-9.
[43]
Ke ZJ, DeGiorgio LA, Volpe BT, Gibson GE. Reversal of thiamine deficiency-induced neurodegeneration. J NeuropatholExp Neurol. 2003; 62:195-207.
[44]
Araki N, Morimasa T, Sakai T, Tokuoh H, Yunoue S, et al. Comparative analysis of brain proteins from p53-deficient mice by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2000; 21:1880-9.
[45]
Catts VS, Catts SV. Apoptosis and schizophrenia: is the tumour suppressor gene, p53, a candidate susceptibility gene?Schizophr Res. 2000; 41:405-15.
[46]
Ni X, Trakalo J, Valente J, Azevedo MH, Pato MT, et al. Human p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) and schizophrenia: case-control and family studies.NeurosciLett. 2005; 388:173-8.
[47]
Chiu HJ, Wang YC, Chen JY, Hong CJ, Tsai SJ. Association study of the p53-gene Pro72Arg polymorphism in schizophrenia.Psychiatry Res. 2001; 105:279-83.
[48]
Papiol S, Arias B, Barrantes-Vidal N, Guitart M, Salgado P, et al. Analysis of polymorphisms at the tumor suppressor gene p53 (TP53) in contributing to the risk for schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive deficits.NeurosciLett. 2004; 363:78-80.
[49]
Yang Y, Xiao Z, Chen W, Sang H, Guan Y, et al. Tumor suppressor gene TP53 is genetically associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese population.NeurosciLett. 2004; 369:126-31.
[50]
Molina V, Papiol S, Sanz J, Rosa A, Arias B, et al. Convergent evidence of the contribution of TP53 genetic variation (Pro72Arg) to metabolic activity and white matter volume in the frontal lobe in schizophrenia patients.Neuroimage. 2011; 56:45-51.
[51]
Lo PK, Chen JY, Tang PP, Lin J, Lin CH, et al. Identification of a mouse thiamine transporter gene as a direct transcriptional target for p53. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276:37186-93.
[52]
McLure KG, Takagi M, Kastan MB. NAD+ modulates p53 DNA binding specificity and function. Mol Cellular Biol. 2004; 24:9958-67.
[53]
Yang Z, Ge J, Yin W, Shen H, Liu H, Guo Y. The expression of p53, MDM2 and Ref1 gene in cultured retina neurons of SD rats treated with vitamin B1 and/or elevated pressure. Yan KeXueBao. 2004; 20:259-63. [Article in Chinese]
[54]
Wong CT, Tsoi WF, Saha N. Acute phase proteins in male Chinese schizophrenic patients in Singapore.Schizophr Res. 1996; 22:165-71.
[55]
Shcherbakova IV, Kozlovskaia GV, Kalinina MA, Kliushnik TP. [A state of innate and adaptive immunity in children with schizophrenia and in the high-risk group for the disease].ZhNevrolPsikhiatrIm S SKorsakova. 2005; 105:45-9. [Article in Russian]
[56]
Zozulia SA, Siriachenko TM, Kaleda VG, Dupin AM, Omel'chenko MA, et al. [The state of the immune system in endogenous mental diseases with pronounced affective disorders].ZhNevrolPsikhiatrIm S SKorsakova. 2011; 111:63-7. [Article in Russian]
[57]
Kliushnik TP, Kalinina MA, Sarmanova ZV, Otman IN, Kozlovskaia GV. [Dynamics of immunological and clinical parameters in the treatment of childhood schizophrenia].ZhNevrolPsikhiatrIm S SKorsakova. 2009; 109:46-9. [Article in Russian]
[58]
Rudduck C, Franzén G, Lindström L. Alpha 1-antitrypsin types in schizophrenia.Hum Hered. 1985; 35:193-5.
[59]
Schmechel DE. Art, alpha-1-antitrypsin polymorphisms and intense creative energy: blessing or curse?Neurotoxicology. 2007; 28:899-914.
[60]
Imagawa M. Low erythrocyte coenzyme Q10 level in schizophrenic patients.Low erythrocyte coenzyme Q10 level in schizophrenic patients.Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1989; 43:143-5.
[61]
Diplock AT, Bunyan J, Green J, Edwin EE. Studies on vitamin E. 7. The effect of thiamine, riboflavin and pantothetic acid on ubiquinone and ubichromenol in the rat. Biochem J. 1961; 79:105-8.
[62]
Yang SD, Yu JS, Lee TT, Yang CC, Ni MH, Yang YY. Dysfunction of protein kinase FA/GSK-3 alpha in lymphocytes of patients with schizophrenic disorder. J Cell Biochem. 1995; 59:108-16.
[63]
Nadri C, Dean B, Scarr E, Agam G. GSK-3 parameters in postmortem frontal cortex and hippocampus of schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res. 2004; 71:377-82.
[64]
Kozlovsky N, Regenold WT, Levine J, Rapoport A, Belmaker RH, Agam G. GSK-3beta in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. J Neural Transm. 2004; 111:1093-8.
[65]
Nadri C, Lipska BK, Kozlovsky N, Weinberger DR, Belmaker RH, Agam G. Glycogen synthasekinase (GSK)-3beta levels and activity in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003; 141:33-7.
[66]
Beasley C, Cotter D, Khan N, Pollard C, Sheppard P, et al. Glycogen synthasekinase-3beta immunoreactivity is reduced in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia.NeurosciLett. 2001; 302:117-20.
[67]
Kozlovsky N, Belmaker RH, Agam G. Low GSK-3 activity in frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients.Schizophr Res. 2001; 52:101-5.
[68]
Zhao J, Sun X, Yu Z, Pan X, Gu F, et al. Exposure to pyrimidine increases beta-amyloid accumulation, Tau hyperphosphorylation, and glycogen synthetase kinase-3 activity in the brain. Neurotox Res. 2010; 19:575-83.
[69]
Pan X, Gong N, Zhao J, Yu Z, Gu F, et al. Powerful beneficial effects of benfotiamine on cognitive impairment and beta-amyloid deposition in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice. Brain. 2010; 133:1342-51.
[70]
Bierhaus A, Humpert PM, Morcos M, Wendt T, Chavakis T, et al. Understanding RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycation end products. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005; 83:876-86.
[71]
Arai M, Yuzawa H, Nohara I, Ohnishi T, Obata N, et al. Enhanced carbonyl stress in a subpopulation of schizophrenia.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010; 67:589-97.
[72]
Itokawa M, Arai M, Ichikawa T, Miyashita M, Okazaki Y. [Studies on pathophysiology of schizophrenia with a rare variant as a clue].Brain Nerve. 2011; 63:223-31. [Article in Japanese]
[73]
Toyosima M, Maekawa M, Toyota T, Iwayama Y, Arai M, et al. Schizophrenia with the 22q11.2 deletion and additional genetic defects: case history.Br J Psychiatry. 2011; 199:245-6.
[74]
Itokawa M, Arai M, Ichikawa T, Miyashita M, Yoshikawa T, et al. [Molecular pathophysiology of schizophrenia and preventive strategy in pubertal period]. SeishinShinkeigakuZasshi. 2011; 113(7):672-8. [Article in Japanese]
[75]
Steiner J, Walter M, Wunderlich MT, Bernstein HG, Panteli B, et al. A new pathophysiological aspect of S100B in schizophrenia: potential regulation of S100B by its scavenger soluble RAGE.Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 65:1107-10.
[76]
Suchankova P, Klang J, Cavanna C, Holm G, Nilsson S, et al. Is the Gly82Ser polymorphism in the RAGE gene relevant to schizophrenia and the personality trait psychoticism?J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012; 37:122-8.
[77]
Karachalias N, Babaei-Jadidi R, Rabbani N,Thornalley PJ. Increased protein damage in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine and its prevention by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy in a rat model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2010; 53:1506-16.
[78]
Karachalias N, Babaei-Jadidi R, Kupich C, Ahmed N, Thornalley PJ. High-dose thiamine therapy counters dyslipidemia and advanced glycation of plasma protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005; 1043:777-83.
[79]
Stirban A, Negrean M, Stratmann B, Gawlowski T, Horstmann T, et al. Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advancedglycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2006; 29:2064-71.
[80]
Kihm LP, Müller-Krebs S, Klein J, Ehrlich G, Mertes L, et al. Benfotiamine protects against peritoneal and kidney damage in peritoneal dialysis.J Am SocNephrol. 2011; 22:914-26.
[81]
Polizzi FC, Andican G, Cetin E, Civelek S, Yumuk V, Burçak G. Increased DNA-Glycation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Effect of Thiamine and Pyridoxine Therapy.ExpClinEndocrinol Diabetes. 2012; 120:329-34.
[82]
Chang SH, Chiang SY, Chiu CC, Tsai CC, Tsai HH, et al. Expression of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and inflammatory associated factors in patients with schizophrenia.Psychiatry Res. 2011; 187:341-6.
[83]
Ganzinelli S, Borda E, Sterin-Borda L. Autoantibodies from schizophrenia patients induces cerebral cox-1/iNOS mRNA expression with NO/PGE2/MMP-3 production.Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010; 13:293-303.
[84]
Rybakowski JK, Skibinska M, Kapelski P, Kaczmarek L, Hauser J. Functional polymorphism of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene in schizophrenia.Schizophr Res. 2009; 109:90-3.
[85]
Beauchesne E, Desjardins P, Hazell AS, Butterworth RF. Altered expression of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinases in thiamine-deficient mouse brain.Neurochem Int. 2009; 55:275-81.
[86]
Kohda Y, Shirakawa H, Yamane K, Otsuka K, Kono T, et al. Prevention of incipient diabetic cardiomyopathy by high-dose thiamine. J Toxicol Sci. 2008; 33:459-72.
[87]
Tarallo S, Beltramo E, Berrone E, Dentelli P, Porta M. Effects of high glucose and thiamine on the balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in vascular cells. ActaDiabetol. 2010; 47:105-11.
[88]
Kobayashi T, Notoya K, Nakamura A, Akimoto K. Fursultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, enhances chondroprotective effects of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate in rabbit experimental osteoarthritis. Inflamm Res. 2005; 54:249-55.
[89]
Hipskind RA, Bilbe G.MAP kinase signaling cascades and gene expression in osteoblasts.Front Biosci. 1998; 3:d804-16.
[90]
Kyosseva SV, Elbein AD, Griffin WS, Mrak RE, Lyon M, Karson CN. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999; 46:689-96.
[91]
Yadav UC, Kalariya NM, Srivastava SK, Ramana KV. Protective role of benfotiamine, a fat-soluble vitamin B1 analogue, in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxic signals in murine macrophages.Free RadicBiol Med. 2010; 48:1423-34.
[92]
Akbarian S, Bunney WE Jr, Potkin SG, Wigal SB, Hagman JO, et al. Altered distribution of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase cells in frontal lobe of schizophrenics implies disturbances of cortical development.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:169-77.
[93]
Akbarian S, Viñuela A, Kim JJ, Potkin SG, Bunney WE Jr, Jones EG. Distorted distribution of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase neurons in temporal lobe of schizophrenics implies anomalous cortical development.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50:178-87.
[94]
Martins-de-Souza D, Maccarrone G, Wobrock T, Zerr I, Gormanns P, et al. Proteome analysis of the thalamus and cerebrospinal fluid reveals glycolysis dysfunction and potential biomarkers candidates for schizophrenia.J Psychiatr Res. 2010; 44:1176-89.
[95]
Pae CU, Yu HS, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, et al. Quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) gene polymorphism (609C/T) may be associated with tardive dyskinesia, but not with the development of schizophrenia.Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004; 7:495-500.
[96]
Behrens MM, Sejnowski TJ. Does schizophrenia arise from oxidative dysregulation of parvalbumin-interneurons in the developing cortex? Neuropharmacology. 2009; 57:193-200.
[97]
Shangari N, Mehta R, O'brien PJ. Hepatocyte susceptibility to glyoxal is dependent on cell thiamin content. ChemBiol Interact. 2007; 165:146-54.
[98]
Galdhar NR, Pawar SS. Hepatic drug metabolism and lipid peroxidation in thiamine deficient rats.Int J VitamNutr Res. 1976; 46:14-23.
[99]
Fraser DA, Hessvik NP, Nikolić N, Aas V, Hanssen KF, et al. Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations. Genes Nutr. 2012; 7:459-69.
[100]
Grosse W 3rd, Wade AE. The effect of thiamine consumption on liver microsomal drug-metabolizing pathways. J PharmacolExpTher. 1971; 176:758-65.
[101]
Tassoni D, Kaur G, Weisinger RS, Sinclair AJ. The role of eicosanoids in the brain. Asia Pac J ClinNutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:220-8.
[102]
Martínez-Gras I, Pérez-Nievas BG, García-Bueno B, Madrigal JL, Andrés-Esteban E, et al. The anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 and its nuclear receptor PPARgamma are decreased in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011; 128:15-22.
[103]
Tang B, Capitao C, Dean B, Thomas EA. Differential age- and disease-related effects on the expression of genes related to the arachidonic acid signaling pathway in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2012; 196:201-6.
[104]
Müller N, Riedel M, Scheppach C, Brandstätter B, Sokullu S, et al. Beneficial antipsychotic effects of celecoxib add-on therapy compared to risperidone alone in schizophrenia.Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159:1029-34.
[105]
Akhondzadeh S, Tabatabaee M, Amini H, AhmadiAbhari SA, et al. Celecoxib as adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Schizophr Res. 2007; 90:179-85.
[106]
Müller N, Krause D, Dehning S, Musil R, Schennach-Wolff R, et al. Celecoxib treatment in an early stage of schizophrenia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of celecoxib augmentation of amisulpride treatment. Schizophr Res. 2010; 121:118-24.
[107]
Gu B, Desjardins P, Butterworth RF. Selective increase of neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in vulvenerable brain regions of rats with experimental Wernicke’s encephalopathy: effect of numesulide. Metab Brain Dis. 2008; 23:175-87.
[108]
Liu S, Stromberg A, Tai HH, Moscow JA. Thiamine transporter gene expression and exogenous thiamine modulate the expression of genes involved in drug and prostaglandin metabolism in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004; 2:477-87.
[109]
Tai HH, Tong M, Ding Y. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and lung cancer.Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007; 83:203-8.
[110]
Yaday UC, Subramanyam S, Ramana KV. Prevention of endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by benfotiamine, a lipophilic analogue of vitamin B1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009; 50:2276-82.
[111]
Akyol O, Herken H, Uz E, Fadillioğlu E, Unal S, Söğüt S, et al. The indices of endogenous oxidative and antioxidative processes in plasma from schizophrenic patients. The possible role of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance.ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2002; 26:995-1005.
[112]
Dietrich-Muszalska A, Kontek B. Lipid peroxidation in patients with schizophrenia.Psychiatry ClinNeurosci. 2010; 64:469-75.
[113]
Herken H, Uz E, Ozyurt H, Söğüt S, Virit O, Akyol O. Evidence that the activities of erythrocyte free radical scavenging enzymes and the products of lipid peroxidation are increased in different forms of schizophrenia.Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:66-73.
[114]
Khan MM, Evans DR, Gunna V, Scheffer RE, Parikh VV, Mahadik SP. Reduced erythrocyte membrane essential fatty acids and increased lipid peroxides in schizophrenia at the never-medicated first-episode of psychosis and after years of treatment with antipsychotics.Schizophr Res. 2002; 58:1-10.
[115]
Wu Z, Zhang XY, Wang H, Tang W, Xia Y, et al. Elevated plasma superoxide dismutase in first-episode and drug naive patients with schizophrenia: inverse association with positive symptoms.ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2012; 36:34-8.
[116]
Kunz M, Gama CS, Andreazza AC, Salvador M, Ceresér KM, et al. Elevated serum superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in different phases of bipolar disorder and in schizophrenia. ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2008; 32:1677-81.
[117]
Akyol O, Yanik M, Elyas H, Namli M, Canatan H, et al. Association between Ala-9Val polymorphism of Mn-SOD gene and schizophrenia. ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol Psychiatry. 2005; 29:123-31.
[118]
Padurariu M, Ciobica A, Dobrin I, Stefanescu C. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients treated with typical and atypical antipsychotics. NeurosciLett. 2010; 479:317-20.
[119]
Calingasan NY, Chun WJ, Park LC, Gibson GE. Oxidative stress is associated with region-specific neuronal death during thiamine deficiency. J NeuropatholExp Neurol. 1999; 58:946-958.
[120]
Gioda CR, de Oliveira Barreto T, Prímola-Gomes TN, de Lima DC, Campos PP, et al. Cardiac oxidative stress is involved in heart failure induced by thiamine deprivation in rats.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H2039-45.
[121]
Lukienko PI, Mel’nichenko NG, Zverinskii IV, Zabrodskaya SV. Antioxidant properties of thiamine. Bull ExpBiol Med. 2000; 130:874-6.
[122]
Portari GV, Marchini JS, Vannucchi H, Jordao AA. Antioxidant effect of thiamine on acutely alcoholized rats and lack of efficacy using thiamine or glucose to reduce blood alcohol content. Basic ClinPharmacolToxicol. 2008; 103:482-6.
[123]
Jung IL, Kim IG. Thiamine protects against paraquat-induced damage: scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species. Environ ToxicolPharmacol. 2003; 15:19-26.
[124]
Park DJ, West AR. Regulation of striatal nitric oxide synthesis by local dopamine and glutamate interactions.J Neurochem. 2009; 111:1457-65.
[125]
West AR, Galloway MP, Grace AA. Regulation of striatal dopamine neurotransmission by nitric oxide: effector pathways and signaling mechanisms.Synapse. 2002; 44:227-45.
[126]
Karson CN, Griffin WS, Mrak RE, Husain M, Dawson TM, et al. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in schizophrenia: increases in cerebellar vermis.MolChemNeuropathol. 1996; 27:275-84.
[127]
Silberberg G, Ben-Shachar D, Navon R. Genetic analysis of nitric oxide synthase 1 variants in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010; 153B:1318-28.
[128]
Reif A, Schecklmann M, Eirich E, Jacob CP, Jarczok TA, et al. A functional promoter polymorphism of neuronal nitric oxide synthase moderates prefrontal functioning in schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:887-97
[129]
Rose EJ, Greene C, Kelly S, Morris DW, Robertson IH, et al. The NOS1 variant rs6490121 is associated with variation in prefrontal function and grey matter density in healthy individuals.Neuroimage. 2012; 60:614-22.
[130]
Herken H, Uz E, Ozyurt H, Akyol O. Red blood cell nitric oxide levels in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001; 52:289-90.
[131]
Raffa M, Atig F, Mhalla A, Kerkeni A, Mechri A. Decreased glutathione levels and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients.BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11:124.
[132]
Cabungcal JH, Nicolas D, Kraftsik R, Cuénod M, Do KQ, Hornung JP. Glutathione deficit during development induces anomalies in the rat anterior cingulate GABAergic neurons: Relevance to schizophrenia. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;22:624-37
[133]
Gravina P, Spoletini I, Masini S, Valentini A, Vanni D, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTA1 as risk factors for schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2011; 187:454-6.
[134]
Lương KVQ, Nguyễn LTH. The impact of thiamine treatment on generalized anxietydisorder. Int J Clin Med. 2011; 2:439–43.
Browse journals by subject